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Biology is the field of science that deals with the study of living organisms. It shares a great deal of ground with other science fields, especially chemistry. There are three primary theories of the biological sciences:

  1. Cell theory: all living things are composed of cells, microscopic enclosed compartments where the genetic material is stored, energy is processed and components necessary for the organism's function are constructed.
  2. Gene theory: living organisms' traits are determined by their genes, large molecules of DNA that contain the instructions for the cell. The field of biology that deals explicitly with the study of genes and heredity, how living organisms pass on their traits to their offspring, is called genetics.
  3. Evolution theory: all organisms on Earth have a shared ancestry and populations have diverged over many generations to create the various species that exist today.