Talarian society is patriarchal to the point that a young human raised among them claimed that no woman should ever have authority over a man. Their society also seems to be heavily militarized, and training for military service begins for young males at least as early as age 14. Talarian society allows military officers to adopt children captured from enemies, and such adoptees do not seem to suffer from any institutional prejudice.
Nothing is known about the Talarian government.
Apart from the bony crest on the forehead that is so typical of Star Trek humanoids, Talarians appear to be indistinguishable from humans.
The largest Talarian warship shown was far smaller than a Galaxy-class Federation starship, and it's weapons -- consisting of x-ray lasers, particle beams, and merculite rockets -- were described as distinctly inferior to those of the USS Enterprise, but the Talarians fought a three-year-long border war against the Federation, apparently making effective use of asymmetric warfare strategies to inflict casualties on Starfleet with minimal risk to their own forces. Nonetheless, they can not be considered a significant power even in their own quadrant.